Friday, September 7, 2018

Viceroys of India

Viceroys of India

Viceroys of India

  • 1856-62  -  Lord Canning 
  • 1862-63  -  Lord Elgin 
  • 1864-69  -  Sir John Lawrence 
  • 1869-72  -  Lord Mayo 
  • 1872-76  -  Lord North Brook 
  • 1876-80  -  Lord Lytton 
  • 1880-84  -  Lord Rippon 
  • 1884-88  -  Lord Dufferin 
  • 1888-94  -  Lord Lansdowne 
  • 1894-99  -  Lord ElginII 
  • 1899-1905 -  Lord Curzon 
  • 1905-10  -  Lord Minto 
  • 1910-16  -  Lord HardingeII 
  • 1916-21  -  Lord Chelmsford 
  • 1921-26  -  Lord Reading
  • 1926-31  -  Lord Irwin 
  • 1931-36  -  Lord Willington 
  • 1936-43  -  Lord Linlithgow 
  • 1943-47  -  Lord Wavell 
  • 1947-48  -  Lord MountBatten 
  • 1948-50  -  C.Rajagopalachari

Lord Canning

  • Last Governor General of British India 
  • First Viceroy of British India 
  • The first Viceroy under Queen Victoria's proclaimation of 1858
  • Doctrine of Lapse was officially withdrawn in 1859
  • To protect the cultivators of Bengal from the oppression of the
  • landlords, Lord Canning introduced Rent Act (1859)
  • Archaeological Survey of India (1861) was established 
  • The Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras (1857) were
  • established 
  • Income Tax in India was introduced
  • Portfolio system (1861) was Introduced
  • Enacted the Indian Penal code  (IPC) 
  • The Mughal Emperor who was sent to Rangoon (Burma) in 1858 Lord Canning - Bahadur Shah II
  • The British started tea and coffee plantations in India during the period of Lord Canning
  • Slave Trade in India was declared as illegal by Lord Canning
  • India's first Budget was presented by James Wilson (1860)
  • Indian Council Act of 1861 was passed 
  • The Viceroy during the period of Indigo revolt in Bengal (1859 - 1860)
  • Dinabandhu Mitra written 'Nil Darpon' during the period of Indigo revolt in Bengal (1859 - 1860) Lord Canning

    Lord Elgin 

    • The Viceroy who served for a shortest period in India 
    • The person known as the 'Governor General of the Province of Canada' 
    • The Viceroy who established Highcourts at Calcutta,Bombay and Madras in 1862 
    •  The 'Wahabis Movement ' was suppressed by Lord Elgin

    Sir John Lawrence

    • The Viceroy of India during the famine of Odisha 
    • The Indian Forest Department in 1867 was established by Sir John Lawrence
    • Known as 
    • The Saviour of India/ The Saviour of Punjab/ The Organizer of Victory
    • Established Scholarship scheme in 1868 
    • Established the Telegraph Communication between India and Europe 

    Lord Mayo

    • Wahabis and Kuka movements were active during his viceroyalty of Lord Mayo 
    • The Viceroy known as the father of financial decentralization of India 
    • The only Viceroy of India who was murdered. Lord Mayo was murdered bySher Ali at Andaman Nicobar on February 8,1872 
    • First Census in India was introduced by Lord Mayo (1872)  First regular Census was organised by Lord Ripon (1881)  First regular Census was conducted in independent India in 1951
    • During the period of Mayo, Statistical Survey of India was organised 
    • Department of Agriculture and Commerce was created 
    • Railway in Public Sector was started State railways was started 
    • First comprehensive census in India (1872) was conducted 
    • Sales department in India for the first time was introduced 
    • Financial decentralization in India (1870) was promulgated 
    • The Indian Evidence Act (1872) was passed 
    • The Rajkot College at Kathiawar and Mayo College at Ajmeer were established

    Lord North Brook

    • The Kuka revolt of Punjab broke out during the period of Lord North Brook 
    • The Viceroy who was the believer of free trade The Viceroy who lowered the import duty and abolished export duties on many commodities 
    • The Prince of Wales Edward VII visited India during the time of Lord North Brook

    Lord Lytton

    • The Viceroy known as 'Viceroy of Reverse Character' 
    • The Viceroy known by the pen name 'Owen Meredith' 
    • Second Anglo-Afghan war (1878) was held during the period of Lord Lytton
    • The Viceroy at the time of the formation of Indian Association 
    •  'Lucile' was a verse novel written by Lord Lytton
    • The Viceroy who organised a Royal Durbar in Delhi (1877) 
    • Uniform Salt Law was introduced 
    • The famine Commission under Richard Strachey was appointed 
    • Viceroy when the Mohammadan Anglo Oriental College at Aligarh was started 
    • The Viceroy who lowered the age limit (from 21 to 19 years) of Civil Service 
    • Civil Service Agitation (1877) was held duringtheperiod of Lord Lytton

    Lord Ripon

    • Introduced separate civil service exams for Indians 
    • Passed Royal titles act of 1876 
    • Passed Deccan Agriculturists Relief Act Of 1879 (DARA) 
    • Withdrawn Vernacular press act (1878) and Arms Act (1882) 
    • Organised the grand Durbar in 1877 
    • Queen Victoria give title of Kaiser-I-Hind' 
    • Started Statutory Civil Service 
    • The Viceroy considered the father of Local self Government in India 
    •  The bill which allowed Indian Judges to trial the British - Ilbert Bill 
    • The Viceroy who passed Ilbert Bill in 1883 
    • The Viceroy who resigned due to the Ilbert Bill controversy 
    • Vernacular Press Act was cancelled
    •  The act which restricted child labour - Factory Act (1881)
    •  The Viceroy known as 'The popular viceroy' 
    • TheViceroy who took great interest in the welfare of the peasants and workers
    • The period of Lord Ripon is known as Gladstonian Era
    •  Hunter Commission (Education Commission) was appointed
    • First official Census was conducted 
    • The age limit of Civil Service was,raised from 19 to 21 

    Lord Dufferin

    • To study Indian Civil Service Aitchison Commission (Public Service Commission) was appointed 
    •  Indian National Congress was formed (1885) during the period of Lord Dufferin 
    • The Secretary of State for India when Indian National Congress was formed - Lord Cross

    Lord Landsdowne

    • Durand Commission to define the line between British India and Afghanistan was appointed. Durand Commission was led by Mortimer Durand.
    • Second Indian Council Act of 1892 was passed during the period of Lord Lansdowne
    • The Viceroy who separated Indian Civil Service as imperial, Provincial and Subordinate

    Lord Elgin II

    • The Viceroy known as Lord Bruce Lord 
    • The Commission appointed to study the great famine of Rajasthan (1896-97) during the period of  Lord Elgin II -Lyall Commission 
    • The bubonic plague which was broken out in India(1896) during the period of Lord Elgin II

    Lord Curzon

    •  The Viceroy known as the Aurangazeb of British India 
    • First Viceroy of India to visit Travancore (1900) 
    • The Viceroy who described Alappuzha as the 'Venice of the East' 
    • Second Ezhava Memorial was submitted to Lord Curzon (1900)
    • The Viceroy when the Queen Victoria of Britain died (1901) 
    •  The Viceroy who appointed University Education Commission (1902)
    • To bring the Universities under control, Lord Curzon appointed Raleigh Commission. Lord Curzon appointed Raleigh Commission under the leadership of Sir Thomas Raliegh in 1902
    • Indian Universities Act (1904), Indian Coinage and Paper Currency Act were passed during the period of Lord Curzon 
    • Ancient Monument Act and Official Secrets Act were passed in 1904
    • Archaelogical Department was founded by Lord Curzon under the leadership of John Marshal
    • The Police Commission appointed by Lord Curzon to study the police administration of every province in India - Sir Andrew Frazer
    • Partition of Bengal was made in July 20,1905 
    • As part of Partition of Bengal, Bengal was divided into two namely Eastern Bengal and Assam and Rest of Bengal (Western Part)
    • The Viceroy who took action to renovate Taj Mahal 
    •  The author of the book 'Life of Lord Curzon' - Ronald Shay 
    • The Viceroy behind the partition of Bengal in 1905 
    • Partition of Bengal was cancelled in 1911 by  Lord Hardinge II 
    • During the period of Lord Curzon Railway Board was formed in 1904
    • Railways was separated from the Public Works Department by Lord Curzon
    •  The railway commission appointed by Lord Curzon under the Chairmanship of Sir Thomas Robertson 
    • PUSA Agricultural Institute was set up by Lord Curzon 
    • Criminal Investigation Department (CID) was formed 
    • Imperial Cadet Crops (1901) was set up by Lord Curzon
    •  "My ancestors conqured India with gun and sword. Using the both, I will rule this country"  "I came to India to help the peaceful death of congress"

    Lord Minto II

    •  The Viceroy when the Partition of Bengal came into force (October 16, 1905) 
    • Father of Community Constituencies in India
    • The Viceroy when Khudiram Bose was hanged to death 
    • Bal Gangadhar Tilak was exiled to Burma during the period of Lord Minto II
    • Indian councils Act of 1909, popularly known as Minto-Morley Reforms 
    • The Viceroy, who established Communal Reservation first in British India (Minto- Morley Reforms) 

    Lord Hardinge II

    • The Viceroy who repealed the Partition of Bengal 
    • The British Viceroy who shifted India's capital from Calcutta to Delhi (1911) 
    • George V visited India during the Lord Hardinge II 
    • The only Royal Durbar in which a Sovereign, George V attended  Ans : 3rd Royal Durbar  Third Royal Durbar was held in 911 
    •  Lord Hardinge II created a separate state of Bihar and Orissa from Bengal in 1911 
    • The Viceroy at the time of Delhi conspiracy case of 1912 
    • First World War was started in 1914

    Lord Chelmsford

    • The Viceroy who implemented diarchy in Indian Provinces 
    •  The Extremists and Moderates joined together at Lucknow INC Session (1916) during the period of Lord Chelmsford 
    • Govt of India Act of 1919 was passed 
    • Govt of India Act of 1919 was otherwise known as Montegu - Chelmsford Reforms. 
    • Jalianwalabagh Massacre was held on April 13,1919 
    • The commission appointed by Lord Chelmsford to investigate Jalianwalabagh Incident John Hunter Commission , Sadler Commission 
    • Women University at Poona and Banaras Hindu University in UP at Lucknow (1916) were established by Lord Chelmsford
    • Chamber of Princes was established by Lord ChelmsfordAugust Declaration of 1917 by Annie Besant was during the period of Lord Chelmsford 
    • Khilafat Movement was held in 1919 
    • Non-cooperation Movement was in 1920

    Lord Reading

    • The only Jewish Viceroy of India 
    • Devadasi System in India was abolished 
    • The Commission appointed by Lord Reading which led to the establishment of RBI - Hilton Young Commission
    • The Committee appointed by Lord Reading in 1921 which recommended the separation of Railway budget from General Budget - Acworth Committee
    • Rowlatt Act was repealed by Lord Reading (1922) 
    • Chauri-Chaura Incident of 1922 was held at Uttar Pradesh during the reign of Lord Reading 
    • The Inter University Board (IUB) of India was formed in 1925
    • Viceroy of India when the Moplah rebellion broken out in Malabar 
    • Foundation of Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sang (RSS) was formed during the period of Lord Reading 
    • UPSC was set up during the Viceroyalty of Lord Reading

    Lord Irwin

    • The Viceroy popularly known as the Christian Viceroy 
    • The Viceroy also known as Holy Fox
    •  First occupant of Rashtrapati Bhavan 
    • Poorna swarajresolution was passed during the reign of Lord Irwin 
    • Gandhi-Irwin pact was in the year 1931 
    • The act which prohibited marriage of girls below 14 and boys below 18 years of age - Sarada Act. Sarada Act was passed in 1929 
    • The Viceroy who appointed Indian State Commission.  Indian States Commission was led by  Harcourt Butler
    • Simon commission arrived in Bombay in 1928 
    • Lahore Congress (1929 December 31) was held during the period of Lord Reading 
    • Declaration of Poorna Swaraj was during the period of Lord Irwin in 1929 
    • Meerut conspiracy case was in 1929 
    • Bhagath Singh, Raj Guru and Sukhdev were hanged to death on March 23,1931

    Lord Willington

    • The 2nd 3rd Round Table Conferences were held during the period of  Lord Willingdon 
    • Poona Pact was signed between Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and Gandhiji in 1932 during the period of Lord Willingdon
    • The Communal award was proclaimed by the British Prime Minister - Ramsay Macdonald
    • The Communal award was proclaimed on August 16,1932
    • Indian Military Academy at Dehradun, an Officer training Academy of Indian Army was established in 1932 by Lord Willingdon 
    • The Viceroy of India when All India Kisan Sabha was formed 
    • Govt of India Act of 1935 was passed by Lord Willingdon 
    • The Viceroy of India when RBI came into force
    • Quit India Movement was started in 1942 
    • Cripps Mission arrived in 1942 during the period of Lord Linlithgow 
    • The Viceroy of India when Congress came into power in provinces 

    Lord Wavell

    • The Viceroy of India when Clement Attlee proclaimed independence to India 
    • The Viceroy when Indian Independence Act was passed 
    • Simla conference was held on Wavell Plan in 1945 
    • Cabinet Mission arrived India in 1946 
    • The Viceroy during the formation of Constituent Assembly on December 6, 1946 
    • Formation of Interim Government on September 2,1946 
    • The President of Interim Government 
    • Royal Naval Mutiny was held in 1946 
    • The viceroy when the Muslim League celebrated Direct Action Day in August 16, 1946 

    Lord Mountbatten

    • Lord Mountbatten was known as  Dickie or Nickey 
    • The Last Viceroy of British India 
    • First Governor General of Free India 
    • Last Act prepared by the British Parliament for India - Indian Independence Act
    • The Indian Independence Act was prepared by Lord Mountbatten 
    • The plan which recommended the partition of India - June 3rd plan/Mountbatten plan 
    • The plan to make India free on August 15, 1947 - June 3rd plan/Mountbatten plan 
    • The partition of India and Pakistan is known as Balcon Plan or Dickie bird plan 
    • Mountbatten was assassinated by Irish Republican Army in 1979 
    • Lord Mount Batten called Gandhi as One Man Army

    C. Rajagopalachari

    • The only Indian Governor General of India 
    • The Second Governor General of Free India 
    • Last Governor General of India 
    • First Indian ruler who occupied the Vice Regal Palace 
    Viceroys of India - Video

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